English for Business and Economics: 21 Professional Phrases

Knowing professional phrases in economics can be extremely beneficial for several reasons. It can improve communication, lead to better decision-making, deliver competitive advantages, improve critical thinking skills, and lead to a greater understanding of the broader economic context.

Understanding the technical terms used in economics can help you communicate more effectively with colleagues, clients, or other stakeholders in the business world.

Having a good grasp of economic concepts can help you make better decisions when it comes to managing resources, investing, or developing strategies for your business.

Being knowledgeable about the language of economics can give you an advantage in the job market, especially if you’re seeking a position in the business or finance sectors.

Understanding economic phrases and ideas can help you develop your critical thinking skills, as you learn to analyze data, identify trends, and evaluate the impact of different policies and decisions.

Understanding professional phrases in economics can help you better understand the broader economic context in which your business operates, including trends in the global economy, government policies, and market conditions. This can help you anticipate changes and adapt your strategies accordingly.

21 Professional English Economic Phrases and Concepts

Supply and demand

This phrase refers to the concept that the price of a good or service is determined by the balance between its supply and the demand for it.

Marginal utility

This refers to the additional satisfaction or benefit that a consumer receives from consuming one more unit of a good or service.

Economic charts and data spread out on a desk. English for Business and Economics

Opportunity cost

This refers to the cost of giving up one option in favor of another. In economics, it is used to describe the benefits forgone when choosing one option over another.


This refers to the increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over time.

Gross domestic product (GDP)

This is the total value of all goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a given time period, typically a year.

Fiscal policy

This refers to the use of government spending and taxation to influence the economy. Fiscal policy is used to stabilize the economy and promote growth.

Monetary policy

This refers to the actions of a central bank or other regulatory authority to control the money supply and interest rates in an economy. Monetary policy is used to manage inflation and promote economic growth.

Market failure

This occurs when the free market fails to allocate resources efficiently. Examples of market failures include monopolies, externalities, and public goods.

Comparative advantage

This refers to the ability of a country or company to produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than another country or company. Comparative advantage is used to explain why countries specialize in certain industries and engage in international trade.


This refers to the degree to which the demand or supply of a good or service is affected by changes in its price. Elasticity is an important concept in economics because it helps to explain how changes in prices can affect consumer behavior and market outcomes.

Market equilibrium

This refers to the point at which the quantity of a good or service supplied equals the quantity demanded, resulting in a stable market price.


This refers to the choice between two options, where choosing one option necessarily means sacrificing the benefits of the other.


This refers to the impact that an economic activity has on parties who are not directly involved in that activity, such as pollution or congestion.


This refers to a market structure in which there is only one supplier of a good or service, giving that supplier significant control over the price and quantity sold.


This refers to a market structure in which there are only a few large suppliers of a good or service, giving those suppliers significant control over the price and quantity sold.

Perfect competition

This refers to a market structure in which there are many small suppliers of a good or service, each producing an identical product, and no single supplier has significant control over the market.

Consumer surplus

This refers to the difference between what a consumer is willing to pay for a good or service and what they actually pay for it.

Producer surplus

This refers to the difference between the price a producer receives for a good or service and the minimum price they are willing to accept.

Deadweight loss

This refers to the inefficiency that arises when the allocation of resources in a market is not optimal, resulting in a loss of potential economic surplus.

Keynesian economics

This refers to an economic theory that emphasizes the role of government intervention in stabilizing the economy and promoting growth, particularly during times of recession or economic downturns.

Aggregate demand

This refers to the total amount of goods and services that all buyers in an economy are willing and able to purchase at a given price level, over a given time period. Aggregate demand is an important concept in macroeconomics, as it can help to explain changes in economic growth, inflation, and unemployment.

Ways to Learn English for Economics

If you want to continue to develop your English for economics consider these resources.

  1. Read economic publications: Read newspapers, magazines, and books that focus on economics. This will expose you to different economic concepts and terminology.
  2. Take an economics course: Taking an economics course can help you learn more about the key economic concepts and terminology. There are many online courses available, as well as courses offered at universities and colleges.
  3. Attend seminars and workshops: Attend seminars and workshops that focus on economics to learn more about the latest economic trends and terminology.
  4. Watch online videos and tutorials: There are many online videos and tutorials available that explain economic concepts and terminology. These can be a helpful way to learn at your own pace.
  5. Network with other professionals: Attend networking events and engage with other professionals in the field to learn more about economic terminology and gain insights into the latest trends and practices.
  6. Practice using economic language: Try to use economic language in your daily conversations, emails, or presentations. This will help you become more comfortable with the terminology and better understand how to use it in context.

Start Learning More English for Economics and Business Today

Get in touch with SpeakWell Business English for a free consultation and discover how we can help you leverage the power of business English to reach your professional goals.


Looking for helpful and practical business English? Check 51+ of the Most Important Phrasal Verbs for Business English.


Do you have a question or a thought about Learning Economic English? Let us know in the comments below!


To start reaping the benefits of learning business English? Get in touch with SpeakWell Business English today. We can create a custom-made course to specifically target improving your language skills.


Looking for more resources to help you get the benefits of learning business English? Pick up a copy of Business English Vocabulary Builder: Powerful Idioms, Sayings, and Expressions to help improve your English!


Want to save this English for Business and Economics blog post article for later? Pin it!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *